UK offshore wind capacity factors

Posted by – 2022/03/28

Here are the average capacity factors for offshore wind farms in UK waters, newly updated to include data to the end of Feb 2022 (though there are still some figures to come through for the last couple of months of last year, for the smaller windfarms). There are 38 operational windfarms presented here, and three closed demonstration sites.

2020 set a new record for the highest annual average capacity factor for a UK offshore windfarm: Hywind Scotland achieved 57.1% in the twelve months to March 2020. This floating windfarm, has behaved differently to any windfarm we’ve seen before, and that’s best portrayed in its load duration curve.

The load-duration curves at the bottom of this page show the differences in distribution of outputs: click on the individual farm names in the legend, to toggle the display of individual curves.

You might be interested in comparing these with the capacity factors and load-duration curves for Belgium, Denmark and Germany.

All numbers are to the end of Feb 2022. Analysis by Raw data from Ofgem and Elexon
elec. gen.
Power per
unit area
spanned (W/m2)
Rolling annual
capacity factors
(click to enlarge)
Aberdeen EOWDC 38.8% 38.5% 3.7931,1291.8Aberdeen EOWDC
Barrow 36.7% 35.9% 15.4904,3253.2Barrow
Beatrice 36.7% 44.2% 2.85886,0682.0Beatrice
Burbo Bank 34.8% 34.1% 14.4903,8143.1Burbo Bank
Burbo Bank 2 43.8% 42.0% 4.92544,4502.7Burbo Bank 2
Dudgeon 48.4% 48.7% 4.44027,4523.6Dudgeon
East Anglia ONE 48.1% 50.7% 1.67144,8642.2East Anglia ONE
Galloper 49.2% 48.2% 3.93535,7331.5Galloper
Greater Gabbard 40.7% 41.2% 8.650415,5891.4Greater Gabbard
Gunfleet Sands 36.2% 37.1% 11.71736,5304.0Gunfleet Sands
Gwynt-y-Mor 36.1% 35.3% 6.757611,7293.0Gwynt-y-Mor
Hornsea One 49.2% 49.3% 2.21,21811,067Hornsea One
Humber Gateway 22.9% 40.6% 6.82195,1823.3Humber Gateway
Hywind Scotland 56.8% 54.5% 4.4306111.1Hywind Scotland
Lincs 45.0% 43.0% 8.42708,5432.8Lincs
London Array 43.0% 40.8% 8.963019,9962.1London Array
Ormonde 30.4% 37.4% 10.01504,8565.6Ormonde
Race Bank 47.1% 44.9% 4.15738,9734.2Race Bank
Rampion 43.1% 37.3% 3.94004,9632.1Rampion
Robin Rigg 34.2% 35.7% 11.51746,2193.5Robin Rigg
Sheringham Shoal 39.8% 40.3% 8.53179,4383.7Sheringham Shoal
Thanet 33.5% 11.43009,0922.9Thanet
Walney phase 1 39.1% 40.3% 10.61846,8342.6Walney phase 1
Walney phase 2 49.5% 46.4% 9.71847,0641.9Walney phase 2
Walney 3 & 4 42.8% 48.0% 3.56599,5052.1Walney 3 & 4
Westermost Rough 49.5% 48.3% 6.82105,9442.9Westermost Rough
West of Duddon Sands 45.6% 46.2% 7.338911,3512.7West of Duddon Sands
Beatrice Demo (closed) 14.6% 18.9% 8.310123Beatrice Demo (closed)
Blyth Demo (closed) 18.0% 9.2% 12.8439Blyth Demo (closed)
Blyth Demo Array 2 38.1% 42.5% 3.742558Blyth Demo Array 2
Fife Demo 13.0% 13.2% 8.0767Fife Demo
Gunfleet Sands Demo 19.0% 29.7% 8.5122721.4Gunfleet Sands Demo
Inner Dowsing 33.6% 35.3% 12.9973,8843.9Inner Dowsing
Kentish Flats 29.2% 30.8% 16.2903,9072.8Kentish Flats
Kentish Flats Extension 40.2% 42.0% 6.2501,1092.5Kentish Flats Extension
Kincardine demo (closed) 5.1% 1.92710.0Kincardine demo (closed)
Lynn 33.1% 35.4% 12.9973,8834.4Lynn
North Hoyle 25.4% 32.2% 17.7602,9772.0North Hoyle
Rhyl Flats 33.5% 34.2% 12.2903,2823.2Rhyl Flats
Scroby Sands 30.1% 31.3% 17.2602,8264.4Scroby Sands
Teesside 31.9% 35.8% 6.9621,3315.1Teesside

Load duration curves

I’ve constructed for each of the offshore windfarms for which there is half-hourly metered data. Use the pause and play buttons to stop and start the sequential display of curves. Click on the windfarm name in the legend to toggle the display of that farm’s curve.

Note that for each individual windfarm, its curve is based on data starting from either January 2009, or from the date that the windfarm was fully commissioned, whichever is more recent. The curve for all windfarms is for the last five years.

Capacity factor calculation method

Just as with the Danish offshore windfarm capacity factors, the capacity factors are calculated by calculating, for each wind farm, the number of hours since it was commissioned. This is then multiplied by its capacity, to give the number of peak-MW-hours. This is divided into the total energy generated by that wind farm, to give its capacity factor. The input energy data is from Elexon, and goes back to 2009; and from Ofgem, which goes back to 2000. There are some UK offshore windfarms for which Elexon does not have metered data: for those, I’ve used the REGO data from Ofgem.

To cite this page: by Andrew ZP Smith, ORCID 0000-0002-8215-4526


Please cite this page as:

Andrew ZP Smith, ORCID: 0000-0003-3289-2237; "UK offshore wind capacity factors". Retrieved from on 2022-05-25 19:12 GMT